Tonometry is a diagnostic method of determining intraocular pressure (IOP). This test is conducted to detect possible glaucoma - eye disease that affects the optic nerve and can lead to blindness. Damage to the optic nerve can be caused by an accumulation of fluid that is not drained from the eye properly. The method of tonometry is the measurement of the degree of deformation of the eyeball the pressure on him from the outside.
Tonometry of the eye is:
Through regular eye exams to detect elevated IOP and risk of glaucoma.
To verify the results of treatment of glaucoma.
Computer refractometry - method study of refraction (refractive power) of the eye and the shape of the cornea. On eye fundus of the patient is projected by an invisible infrared label patient test. The degree of change depends on the refraction of the eye of the patient. A special computer measures and calculates these changes. Keratometry - definition of radii of curvature and refractive power of the cornea, the research necessary for the selection of contact lenses and the diagnosis of diseases of the cornea. Built-in printer prints out the result in a convenient for the doctor. The results of the refractometry is sufficient for the initial evaluation of the changes of the patient and further selection of glasses or contact lenses. In most cases, especially in adults, there is no need to extend the pupils, because autorefractometer has the function of relieving stress accommodation. At our clinic we use the unit auto Refractometer Accuref-K Shin-Nippon (Japan) which allows to determine the refraction with sufficient accuracy and without the use of additional tools (e.g., ciproflaxin). Has the function of automatic measurement of the corneal curvature in the peripheral points, which is especially important in the selection or the measurement of contact lenses.
Ophthalmoscopy is a method of study, allowing you to see the eyeball from the inside, i.e. to examine the fundus of the eye using a special instrument, the Ophthalmoscope. Using the method of ophthalmoscopy fails to carefully examine the retina and it is located in structure: area of yellow spots, the Central area of the retina, optic disc, retinal vessels; and choroid.
Made for narrow or wide pupil with the electric ophthalmoscopes of various constructions, depending on the need.
Perimetry (measurement of visual field)
Perimetry is a method of study of the boundaries of fields of view with their projection on the spherical surface. The field of view is a part of space that the eye sees at a particular fixation of gaze and motionless head. If you fix the eyes of any subject, apart from the clear distinction of the visible object and other objects located at different distance from it and within the sight of man. Thus, inherent in the eye's peripheral vision that is less sharp than Central.
Indications for perimetry are:
2. Diseases of the optic nerve (optic neuritis, trauma, ischemia).
3. Pathology of the retina (degeneration, hemorrhage, radiation burn, detachment, a tumor).
5. Tumors of the brain.
6. A traumatic brain injury.
7. Violations of cerebral circulation.
8. Assessment of vision in prophylactic examinations.
Contraindications to perimetry:
- Mental illness of the patient.
- Alcohol or drug intoxication.
During computer perimetry the patient fixes his look on a certain label. At various points of the device in a chaotic manner with the changing speed begin to appear objects of different brightness. As soon as the patient notices the object, he presses a special button of the device. The device gives the results of the survey on the basis of which the doctor puts a definitive diagnosis.
In our clinic we use automatic computer perimeter КОWA AP 5000 C (Japan) for static, kinetic, and color perimetry estimates the threshold sensitivity of the retina.
Ultrasonography (us) of the eye.
This method becoming more common is simple, safe and informative. Eyes ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure that allows to estimate the structure of the eye condition of the retina, lens and eye muscles. Very often, ultrasound is administered after ophthalmic procedures, assessing the state of the fundus or, in particular, the replacement of the crystalline lens the location lenses. Such studies allow not only detection of eye diseases, but also regularly monitor their dynamics.
Indications for: high degree of myopia and hyperopia; retinal detachment; cataracts; glaucoma; eye tumor; pathology of the eye muscles; eye trauma; foreign body in the eyeball; vascular diseases of the eye; diseases of the optic nerve; chronic diseases (hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes). Contra-indications for ultrasound of the eye there is little, except in open eye injury.
For this study we use the ultrasound machine E-Z scan 5500 AB Sonomed (USA).
Definition visual acuity is a determination of the ability of the eye to distinguish two luminous points located at a minimum distance from each other expressed by the number. I.e. visual acuity is the ability to consider the structure of the object. In fact, this method of research allows to determine the level of impairment, but, unfortunately, this practice is not applicable in children under 3-4 years of age.
Any appeal to the ophthalmologist is an indication for measurement of visual acuity. Contraindications to carrying out this procedure. Distinguish the measurement of visual acuity for distance and near.
To determine visual acuity, use of special tables. For Dali is a table Sivtseva (Russian alphabet) and Golovin (Landolt rings), and for children – Orlova (with pictures). Opposite each row in these tables is written in visual acuity, which this line corresponds.
First, examine visual acuity without correction, then correction, allowing a more detailed assessment of visual function. If the patient uses glasses, then the vision is tested without them and in them.
Due to the fact that in recent decades, optical techniques are constantly being developed in the world of diagnostics of visual acuity there are a lot of accessories, which greatly facilitates the work of ophthalmologists. One of them is a projector signs. In our center we use the projector marks Shin-Nippon (Japan). Sign projector with remote control has more functionality.
Laser photocoagulation of the retina on equipment Integre 532 nm ELEXX (Australia) is Intended for the treatment of retinal diabetes, vascular diseases of the eye, high myopia and local retinal detachment. Is laser coagulation outpatient basis under local anesthesia, the essence of the procedure consists in "welding" the retina to the underlying tissues and the creation of strong adhesions, which does not allow the retina to settle. The laser treatment is virtually painless, the patient only required perseverance, as laser surgeon working at high magnification, carefully controlling the coating coagulates on the retina.